Leonurine, An Improved Synthesis
Cheng KF, Yip CS, Yeung HW, Kong YC.
Leonurine (1) is the uterotonic principle of Leonurus artemisia. We have developed a simple, high-yield synthetic procedure of 1 that is adaptable to large scale preparation. The synthesis involves the condensation of syringic acid and 4-guanidino-1-butanol hydrochloride in the presence of DDC using 1:1 HMPT-ether as solvent. The synthetic leonurine showed uterotonic activity in vivo and in vitro.
The uterotonic principle of Leonurus artemisia, a plant leaf, is leonurine. This paper reports the development of a simple, high-yield synthetic procedure of reproducing leonurine that is adaptable to large-scale preparation. The synthetic process includes condensation of syringic acid and 4-guanidino-1-butanol hydrochloride in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, using 1:1 hexamethylphosphoric triamide-ethyl ether as solvent. Synthetic leonourine showed uterotonic activity in vitro and in vivo, just like its naturally occurring counterpart.
Leonurine is easily extracted into water and its derivative compound is hydrochloride monohydrate. Primary uses include:
- Respiratory tract infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and group A ß-hemolytic streptococci.
- Otitis media due to S. pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis (use monohydrate only), staphylococci, streptococci, and N. catarrhalis.
- GU infections (including acute prostatitis) due to Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis or Klebsiella species.
- Bone infections caused by P. mirabilis or staphylococci.
- Skin and skin structure infections due to staphylococci and streptococci.
Further Articles for Wild Dagga
- Dispelling Wild Dagga Species Confusion – An easy to read comparison.
- The Diterpenoids of Leonurus leonotus – An interesting clinical study.
- Dagga/Yopo Experience Report – A positive story by an unknown author.
- Folk, Traditional, and Medical Uses for Wild Dagga – Explained in detail.
- Growing Wild Dagga – Cultivating Leonotis leonurus plants.
- Botany of Leonurus (Mint Family) – From the Herba database.
- Hottentot Tribes and Wild Dagga – Brief history of who the Hottentot’s were.
- South Africa’s Nature – One explorer’s account.
- Synthesis of Leonurine – A brief abstract.
- Motherwort – The True Dagga Plant – Ancient plant with many uses.